Our DNA defines who we are – literally. But a recent discovery that found the oldest sample of DNA closely related to humans has put up new questions on how we actually came to be. The newly-discovered fossil, which was dated to be 400,000 years old – pre-dating the previously known oldest fossil by 100,000 years – poses some questions regarding our existence as a species.
The study was reported in the journal Nature. Found in Spain, the fossil was initially believed to be from someone with a Neanderthal lineage, but its DNA tells a different the story. The fossil’s DNA cryptically parallels those of the hominid race known as the Denisovans. This lineage is only known from a DNA recovered from remains in Siberia, which about 6,400km east where the recent DNA was located.
The researchers found that there was a discrepancy in the fossil’s anatomical and genetic information, causing scientists to reassess the evolution of man. Some speculate that DNAs could have merged since, over centuries, Denisovans and Neanderthals may have actually met and intermixed. There are still diverse kinds of human race which are yet to be discovered. A geneticist from Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany said that at this point in time, there is still a big question among them.
Clues of the newly found human history came from a pit of bones found in Spain named Sima de los Huesos, which is believed to be about 400,000 years old. The DNA of the latter was correlated to the Denisovans as it was found to be identical to previously found samples. The new findings between the story of human evolution that grounds on the artifacts of fossils and antediluvian DNA has been difficult to resolve since Denisovans were supposed to originate in East Asia only and these race were remarkably different from Neanderthals.
Out of Africa
According to the studies, scientists settled that the ancestors of humans have common relations between the Denisovans and Neanderthals which are said to live in Africa half a million years ago. Due to the division of human lineage, the ancestors of Denisovans and Neanderthals left Africa almost 300,000 years ago. Evidence and facts theorized that the Denisovans went east and the Neanderthals moved to the west going towards Europe.
There was a rock climbing accident last August. Alvina Lee, together with her friend climbed Dairy Farm Quarry and encountered an accident. A huge rock plunged towards Miss Lee which caused skull and arm fracture and brain haemorrhage. The accident gave Miss Lee few days in Intensive Care Unit.
They could avert the climbing accident if they checked the warnings (made by Dairy Farm Rock Climbing group) on Facebook. Aside from reading warnings, it is important that you know how to avoid rock climbing accidents.
Take it seriously – Rock climbing is a dangerous sport. Therefore, it should be taken seriously. You should accept that accidents happen. If you accept that and you take everything seriously, you have higher chances of completing it alive.
Physically and mentally stable – When you consider rock climbing, make sure you are physically and mentally stable. You should feel rested before heading out. If possible, you should do series of trainings so your body can adapt and endure. If your mind is unstable, you will lose focus and the nervousness can cloud your judgment.
Secure proper gear – Days before the climb, you should secure proper gear. When the day has finally arrived, you should triple check it if possible just to make sure you did not leave anything behind. You need to bring safety ropes, harness, helmet and many more.
Rock climbing is a famous sport these days. If you are the adventurous type, you are free to consider this sport just do not forget the things mentioned above. If you are doing this professionally, you should not get too overly confident because it can undermine you. When you climb, it is very important that you think of possible things to happen and get ready for it. Good luck there!
The National Environment Agency will be awarding eight individuals this coming September for their contributions in making Singapore cleaner and greener. Actually, there were four hundred nineteen nominees but only eight made it as finalists. The eight individuals will receive EcoFriend Awards from the NEA for their contributions to environmental sustainability.
With this, we are all encouraged to make a difference. We can make a difference no matter how small it is. Remember that all great things begin with a small step. So, how can we start to make a difference when it comes to the environment? Here are some simple ways of making a difference:
We know that Earth is deteriorating. The air that we breathe is not as clean as it once was, the sun gets hotter, UV rays penetrate our atmosphere, and the list goes on. We should spread awareness to others so they will be more aware about the plight of our planet.
Employ the Three R’s
Have you heard about Reduce, Reuse and Recycle? The three R’s help us think about our garbage and how to reduce it. The world is full of clutter and every day, things are piling up. We can keep the clutter from consuming all our space by employing the three R’s.
The air quality is compromised because of air polluting activities. Many industries and cars emit carbon dioxide and other particles that pollute the air. If this continues, our air quality will be further compromised. We should plant more trees because it can absorb carbon monoxide and transforms it to the oxygen that we need to breathe.
We should do our best to take care of our environment because after all, we only have one. We cannot change the air we breathe and we cannot change the land we stand. We did some mistakes and it came to a point where we abused whatever was given to us but it is never too late to change.
The Phantom of the Opera comes to The Lion City to have a total of 24 performances for those who eager to watch this most successful and popular musical in the whole world. The Really Useful Group is the producer of the musical’s staging in Singapore. Producer Kerry Comerford said that it is a remarkably unique musical for many reasons.
Over the years, this legendary musical has been praised enthusiastically and publicly. At present, The Phantom of the Opera remains eminent beyond comparison to other musicals of its sort. The musical has enjoyed worldwide success throughout the Asia-Pacific region. In 2007, it has experienced a sold-out season in Shanghai, Seoul, and in Singapore as well. This year, the stellar cast and the production team are confident that the audiences will have a warm welcome to the return of this well-known musical.
This longest-running show on Broadway is set to have its first performance in the country on 24 July and its last on 11 August. This one is for a strictly limited season in the country. All performances will be staged in Grand Theatre, Marina Bay Sands.
Excluding booking fee, ticket prices are as follows: VIP (inclusive of drink and programme)-S$230, A Reserve- S$165, B Reserve- S$145, C Reserve- S$125, D Reserve- S$95, E Reserve- S$55, VIP Box (good for four)- S$920. You can book your ticket in advance so you won’t miss on this spectacular production. As per record, The Phantom of the Opera has been performed in more than 27 countries, grossing more than US$5.6 billion.
If you want a fun-filled day, there are numerous activities that you can indulge in. You should make time for it and of course make it happen. Give yourself a break and relax. You can go to these places for a change:
Wild Wild Wet
If you want to take the plunge, Wild Wild Wet is the perfect place. It is located in Downtown East and it is considered the largest water theme park here. It features different rides, wave pool and other activities for you. They are open every Monday, Wednesday-Friday (1pm-7pm) and Saturday-Sunday & Public Holidays (10am-7pm). Admission fee for adults is S$19 and S$14 for children. You can call (+65) 6581-9128 for more information.
MINT Museum of Toys
MINT Museum of Toys is for the young and young at heart. The museum is located in Seah Street. It exhibits toy collections from different countries around the world. There are many vintage pieces here that you will be amazed. They are open daily from 9:30am to 6:30pm. Admission fee for adults is S$15 and S$7.50 for children. You can call (+65) 6339-0660 for more information.
While in Sentosa, you can try Skyline Luge. You will be thrilled driving down the hill with Luge. They are open daily from 10am to 9:30pm. Admission fee for Luge + Skyride is S$12.50 per head, Two Luge + Skyride is S$18 per person, Three Luge + Skyride is S$22 per person and Five Luge + Skyride is S$30 per person. You can call (+65) 6274-0472 for more information.
You should plan your trip as soon as possible. You can invite your friends and other loved ones that way it will be more memorable for you. Have a great time! For once in your life, forget about your work.
Singapore is an island-nation blessed with a lot of natural and man-made tourist attractions. Touring around the country to visit these places can be more fun by taking the bus. As a matter of fact, the country has one of the most efficient and safest public transport systems in the entire Southeast Asia region.
Taking You to Every Corner of the Island
Public buses can even get you to places that are beyond the reach of the MRT. They are very frequent in the city center and provide transportation starting from the break of day until midnight.
A Variety of Styles
Buses can range from single deck coaches, 20-seaters, double-deckers and twin-carriage “bendy buses”. In general, Singaporeans and tourists love riding buses because fares are very cheap. For short journeys, fare starts at under SGD$1. You can also use the EZ-Link prepay card for even cheaper fare.
In a generally humid place like our country, cool air is always preferred by the public. You need not worry of sweating out while going around different places because buses here are all air-conditioned. However, the only drawback is the fare. Although it is slightly more expensive, it is reasonable because you will be getting extra comfort in return.
The Best Means of Transportation
Buses are arguably the best means of public transportation, especially if you want to make your whole experience of exploring the island-nation extra memorable. While the MRT metro system provides a quicker and more convenient option for commuters, nothing can still compare to the fun and excitement of taking a bus ride to get around this little paradise.
It is important that you spend time with your family no matter how busy you are. Strengthening family ties is crucial in the development of all family members therefore it should be encouraged and promoted.
There are countless activities out there that you can consider. You can choose from the following activities and be sure to make it happen:
Sentosa Island is just a few minutes travel from the centre. It features many dining areas, attractions, beaches, spas, hotels and clubs. It is perfect for family gatherings. There are many activities like Sentosa Express (costs S$4), Sentosa Boardwalk (costs S$1) and Cable Car (costs S$15 for kids and S$26 for adults) that your family can indulge.
Marine Life Park
Marine Life Park is an attraction of Resorts World. It offers a marine experience with the largest oceanarium in the world. The family can go to S.E.A Aquarium and Adventure Cove Waterpark. S.E.A Aquarium opens from 10am to 7pm daily while the Adventure Cove Waterpark opens from 10am to 6pm. If you are thinking of the admission fee, worry no more because it is reasonable. S.E.A Aquarium and Adventure Cove Waterpark only require adults to pay S$29 and S$20 for children or elders.
Gogreen Segway Eco Adventure
Gogreen Segway Eco Adventure is located in Beach View, Segway Hub. If your family wants to go to the beach, this place is perfect. The family can try Fun Ride (which costs S$12 per person) and Eco Adventurer (which costs S$38 per person).
Universal Studios is located in Sentosa Gateway. It is a movie theme park where the family can enjoy many performances and rides. They are open daily from 10am to 7pm. Admission fee is from S$79 to S$118.
At the end of the day, the place is not important. As long as you enjoy each other’s company, wherever you go, nothing can go wrong. Have a great time!